The Isle of Man also known simply as Mann, is a self-governing crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann. The Lord of Mann is represented by a Lieutenant Governor. Foreign relations and defence are the responsibility of the British Government.
In 1266, the island became part of Scotland under the Treaty of Perth, after being ruled by Norway. After a period of alternating rule by the kings of Scotland and England, the island came under the feudal lordship of the English Crown in 1399. The lordship revested into the British Crown in 1765, but the island never became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain or its successor the United Kingdom: it retained its status as an internally self-governing Crown dependency.
The island was cut off from the surrounding islands around 8000 BC and colonisation took place by sea some time before 6500 BC.The first residents were hunter gatherers and fishermen. Examples of their tools are kept at the Manx Museum.
The Neolithic Period marked the beginning of farming, and megalithic monuments began to appear such as Cashtal yn Ard near Maughold, King Orry's Grave at Laxey, Meayll Circle near Cregneash, and Ballaharra Stones at St John's. There were also the local Ronaldsway and Bann cultures.
During the Bronze Age, burial mounds became smaller. Bodies were put in stone-lined graves with ornamental containers. The Bronze Age burial mounds created long-lasting markers around the countryside.
The ancient Romans knew of the island and called it Insula Manavia although it is uncertain whether they conquered the island. Around the fifth century, large-scale migration from Ireland precipitated a process of Gaelicisation evidenced by Ogham inscriptions, giving rise to the Manx language, which is a Goidelic language closely related to Irish and Scottish Gaelic.
English rule was delegated to a series of lords and magnates. The Tynwald passed laws concerning the government of the island in all respects and had control over its finances, but was subject to the approval of the Lord of Mann.
In 1866, the Isle of Man obtained limited Home Rule, with partly democratic elections to the House of Keys, but an appointed Legislative Council. Since then, democratic government has been gradually extended.
The Isle of Man is located in the middle of the northern Irish Sea, almost equidistant from England, Northern Ireland, Scotland (closest), and Wales (farthest). It is 52 kilometres (32 mi) long and, at its widest point, 22 kilometres (14 mi) wide. It has an area of around 572 square kilometres (221 sq mi).Besides the island of Mann itself, the political unit of the Isle of Man includes some nearby small islands: the seasonally inhabited Calf of Man, Chicken Rock on which stands an unmanned lighthouse, St Patrick's Isle and St Michael's Isle. The last two of these are connected to the main island by permanent roads/causeways.
Ranges of hills in the north and south are separated by a central valley. The northern plain, by contrast, is relatively flat, consisting mainly of deposits from glacial advances from western Scotland during colder times. There are more recently deposited shingle beaches at the northernmost point, the Point of Ayre. The island has one mountain higher than 600 metres (2,000 ft), Snaefell, with a height of 620 metres (2,034 ft).According to an old saying, from the summit one can see six kingdoms: those of Mann, Scotland, England, Ireland, Wales, and Heaven.Some versions add a seventh kingdom, that of the Sea, or Neptune.
At the 2011 census,the Isle of Man was home to 84,497 people, of whom 27,938 resided in the island's capital, Douglas and 9,273 in the adjoining village of Onchan. The population rose 5.5% between the 2006 and 2011 censuses. By country of birth, those born in the Isle of Man were the largest group (48.1%), while those born in the United Kingdom were the next largest group at 42.2% (35.9% in England, 3.2% in Scotland, 2% in Northern Ireland and 1.1% in Wales), 1.9% in the Republic of Ireland and 0.2% in the Channel Islands. The remaining 7.5% were born elsewhere in the world, with 2.4% coming from EU countries (other than the UK and Ireland). The census also reported 1,823 people who claim a knowledge of the Manx language.
The United Kingdom is responsible for the island's defence and ultimately for good governance, and for representing the island in international forums, while the island's own parliament and government have competence over all domestic matters.
Citizenship in the Isle of Man is governed by British law. Passports issued by the Isle of Man Passport Office say "British Islands – Isle of Man" on the cover but the nationality status stated on the passport is simply "British Citizen". Although Manx passport holders are British citizens, because the Isle of Man is not part of the European Union, people born on the Island without a parent or grandparent either born, naturalised, registered or resident for more than five consecutive years in the United Kingdom do not have the same rights as other British citizens with regard to employment and establishment in the EU.
Isle of Man passports can be issued to any British citizen in the Isle of Man,whether or not that person has "Manx status" as an Isle of Man worker under the local Isle of Man employment laws. They can also be issued to Manx-connected British citizens residing in Britain or either of the other Crown Dependencies.
The Isle of Man holds neither membership nor associate membership of the European Union, and thus did not take part in the 2016 referendum on the UK's EU membership. Protocol 3 of the UK's Act of Accession to the Treaty of Rome included the Isle of Man within the EU's customs area, allowing for trade in Manx goods without tariffs throughout the EU.However, there are still limitations on the movement of capital and services.
EU citizens are entitled to travel and reside, but not work, in the island without restriction. And Manx citizens—without the hereditary qualification outlined above—are similarly restricted from working in the EU.
The effect of the UK leaving the European Union is uncertain. The UK has confirmed that the Crown Dependencies' position will be included in the Brexit negotiations.
The Isle of Man is not itself a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. By virtue of its relationship with the United Kingdom, it takes part in several Commonwealth institutions, including the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association and the Commonwealth Games. The Government of the Isle of Man has made calls for a more integrated relationship with the Commonwealth,including more direct representation and enhanced participation in Commonwealth organisations and meetings, including Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings.
The Chief Minister of the Isle of Man has said: A closer connection with the Commonwealth itself would be a welcome further development of the Island's international relationships
The Isle of Man is a low-tax economy with no capital gains tax, wealth tax, stamp duty, or inheritance tax and a top rate of income tax of 20%.A tax cap is in force; the maximum amount of tax payable by an individual is £120,000 or £240,000 for couples if they choose to have their incomes jointly assessed. The £120,000 tax cap equates to an assessable income of £589,550.
Personal income is assessed and taxed on a total worldwide income basis rather than a remittance basis. This means that all income earned throughout the world is assessable for Manx tax rather than only income earned in or brought into the Island.
The rate of corporation tax is 0% for almost all types of income; the only exceptions are that the profits of banks are taxed at 10%, as is rental (or other) income from land and buildings situated on the Isle of Man.
Offshore banking, manufacturing, and tourism form key sectors of the economy.Agriculture and fishing, once the mainstays of the economy, now make declining contributions to the island's Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
Trade takes place mostly with the United Kingdom. The island is in customs union with the UK, and related revenues are pooled and shared under the Common Purse Agreement. This means that the Isle of Man cannot have the lower excise revenues on alcohol and other goods that are enjoyed in the Channel Islands.
The Manx government promotes island locations for making films by contributing to the production costs. Since 1995, over 80 films have been made on the island. The policy has been criticized as unsustainable. Since 2007, the Isle of Man government invested £34 million in the film industry but recouped only £6.3 million, representing a loss of over £27 million.
The Isle of Man Government Lottery operated from 1986 to 1997. Since 2 December 1999 the island has participated in the United Kingdom National Lottery.The island is the only jurisdiction outside the United Kingdom where it is possible to play the UK National Lottery.Since 2010 it has also been possible for projects in the Isle of Man to receive national lottery Good Causes Funding.The good causes funding is distributed by the Manx Lottery Trust.Tynwald receives the 12p lottery duty for tickets sold in the Island.
Tourist numbers peaked in the first half of the 20th century, prior to the boom in cheap travel to Southern Europe that also saw the decline of tourism in many similar English seaside resorts. The Isle of Man tourism board has recently invested in "Dark Sky Discovery" sites to diversify its tourism industry. It is expected that dark skies will generally be nominated by the public across the UK.
However, the Isle of Man tourism board tasked someone from their team to nominate 27 places on the island as a civil task. This cluster of the highest quality "Milky Way" sites is now well promoted within the island. This government push has effectively given the island a headstart in the number of recognised Dark Sky sites. However, this has created a distorted view when compared to the UK where this isn't promoted on a national scale.
There, Dark Sky sites are expected to be nominated over time by the public across a full cross section of national town, city and countryside locations rather than en masse by government departments.
In 2017 an office of The International Stock Exchange was opened to provide a boost for the island's finance industry.
The Isle of Man has become a centre for emerging private space travel companies.A number of the competitors in the Google Lunar X Prize, a $30 million competition for the first privately funded team to send a robot to the Moon, are based on the Island. The team summit for the X Prize was held on the Island in October 2010.In January 2011 two research space stations owned by Excalibur Almaz arrived on the Island and were kept in an aircraft hangar at the airfield at the former RAF Jurby near Jurby.
The culture of the Isle of Man is often promoted as being influenced by its Celtic, and to a lesser extent its Norse, origins. Proximity to the UK, popularity as a UK tourist destination in Victorian times, and immigration to and from Britain have meant that the cultures of Great Britain have been influential at least since Revestment. Revival campaigns have attempted to preserve the surviving vestiges of Manx culture after a long period of Anglicisation, and there has been significantly increased interest in the Manx language, history and musical tradition.
The official languages of the Isle of Man are, since 1985, Manx and English.Manx has traditionally been spoken but is now considered critically endangered.
Manx is a Goidelic Celtic language and is one of a number of insular Celtic languages spoken in the British Isles.Manx has been officially recognised as a legitimate autochthonous regional language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, ratified by the United Kingdom on 27 March 2001 on behalf of the Isle of Man government.
Manx is closely related to Irish and Scottish Gaelic.
In Manx, the greetings moghrey mie (good morning) and fastyr mie (good afternoon) can be heard.As in Irish and Scottish Gaelic, the concepts of "evening" and "afternoon" are referred to with one word.Another term used in Manx is traa dy liooar, meaning "time enough", this represents a stereotypical view of the Manx attitude to life.
For centuries, the island's symbol has been the so-called "three legs of Mann" , a triskelion of three legs conjoined at the thigh. The Manx triskelion, which dates with certainty to the late 13th century, is of uncertain origin. It has been suggested that its origin lies in Sicily, an island which has been associated with the triskelion since ancient times.
The symbol appears in the island's official flag and official coat of arms, as well as its currency. The Manx triskelion may be reflected in the island's motto, Latin: Quocunque jeceris stabit, which appears as part of the island's coat of arms. The Latin motto translates into English as "whichever way you throw, it will stand" or "whithersoever you throw it, it will stand".It dates to the late 17th century when it is known to have appeared on the island's coinage.It has also been suggested that the motto originally referred to the poor quality of coinage which was common at the time—as in "however it is tested it will pass".
The ragwort or cushag is the Manx national flower.
The predominant religious tradition of the island is Christianity. Before the Protestant Reformation, the island had a long history as part of Catholic Christendom, and in the years following the Reformation, the religious authorities on the island, and later the population of the island, accepted the religious authority of the British monarchy and the Church of England.
It has also come under the influence of Irish religious tradition. The island forms a separate diocese called Sodor and Man, which in the distant past comprised the medieval kingdom of Man and the Scottish isles. It now consists of 16 parishes,and since 1541 has formed part of the Province of York.These modern ecclesiastical parishes do not correspond to the island's ancient parishes mentioned in this article under "Local Government", but more closely reflect the current geographical distribution of population.
Other Christian churches also operate on the Isle of Man. The second largest denomination is the Methodist Church, whose Isle of Man District is close in numbers to the Anglican diocese. There are eight Roman Catholic parish churches, included in the Catholic Archdiocese of Liverpool, as well as a presence of Eastern Orthodox Christians.
Additionally there are five Baptist churches, four Pentecostal churches, the Salvation Army, a ward of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, two congregations of Jehovah's Witnesses, two United Reformed churches, as well as other Christian churches. There is a small Muslim community, with its own mosque in Douglas, and there is also a small Jewish community.
The music of the Isle of Man reflects Celtic, Norse and other influences, including from its neighbours, Scotland, Ireland, England and Wales. A wide range of music is performed on the island, such as rock, blues, jazz and pop. However, its traditional folk music has undergone a revival since the 1970s, starting with a music festival called Yn Çhruinnaght in Ramsey.
This was part of a general revival of the Manx language and culture after the death of the last native speaker of Manx in 1974. The Isle of Man was mentioned in the Who song "Happy Jack" as the homeland of the song's titular character, who is always in a state of ecstasy, no matter what happens to him. It is also the birthplace of Maurice, Robin and Barry Gibb, of the Bee Gees.
In the past the basic national dish of the island was spuds and herrin, boiled potatoes and herring. This plain dish was supported by the subsistence farmers of the island, who crofted the land and fished the sea for centuries. A more recent claim for the title of national dish could be the ubiquitous chips, cheese and gravy. This dish, which is similar to poutine, is found in most of the island's fast-food outlets, and consists of thick cut chips, covered in shredded Cheddar cheese and topped with a thick gravy.
Seafood has traditionally accounted for a large proportion of the local diet. Although commercial fishing has declined in recent years, local delicacies include Manx kippers (smoked herring) which are produced by the smokeries in Peel on the west coast of the island, albeit mainly from North Sea herring these days.The smokeries also produce other specialities including smoked salmon and bacon.
Crab, lobster and scallops are commercially fished, and the Queen Scallop (Queenies) is regarded as a particular delicacy, with a light, sweet flavour.Cod, ling and mackerel are often angled for the table, and freshwater trout and salmon can be taken from the local rivers and lakes, supported by the government fish hatchery at Cornaa on the east coast.
Cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry are all commercially farmed; Manx lamb from the hill farms is a popular dish. The Loaghtan, the indigenous breed of Manx sheep, has a rich, dark meat that has found favour with chefs,featuring in dishes on the BBC's MasterChef series.
Manx cheese has also found some success, featuring smoked and herb-flavoured varieties, and is stocked by many of the UK's supermarket chains.Manx cheese took bronze medals in the 2005 British Cheese Awards, and sold 578 tonnes over the year. Manx cheddar has been exported to Canada where it is available in some supermarkets.
Beer is brewed on a commercial scale by Okells Brewery, which was established in 1850 and is the island's largest brewer; and also by Bushy's Brewery and the Hooded Ram Brewery. The Isle of Man's Pure Beer Act of 1874, which resembles the German Reinheitsgebot is still in effect: under this Act, brewers may only use water, malt, sugar and hops in their brews.
There are two domestic animals specifically connected to the Isle of Man, though they are also found elsewhere.
The Manx cat is a breed of cat noted for having a genetic mutation that causes it to have a shortened tail. The length of this tail can range from a few inches, known as a "stumpy", to being completely nonexistent, or "rumpy". Manx cats display a range of colours and usually have somewhat longer hind legs compared to most cats. The cats have been used as a symbol of the Isle of Man on coins and stamps and at one time the Manx government operated a breeding centre to ensure the continuation of the breed.
The Manx Loaghtan sheep is a breed native to the island. It has dark brown wool and four, or sometimes six horns. The meat is considered to be a delicacy.There are several flocks on the island and others have been started in England and Jersey.
In March 2016 the Isle of Man became the first entire country to be adopted into UNESCO's Network of Biosphere Reserves.